Publications

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 Earlier Books Chapters Patents

2017
Y. Roy, D. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of temperature on ion transport in nanofiltration membranes: diffusion, convection, and electromigration,” Desalination, online 9 Aug. 2017, 420:241–257, 15 Oct. 2017. (doi link) (free download)

D.M. Warsinger, A. Servi, G. Connors, M.O. Mavukkandy, H.A. Arafat, K.K. Gleason, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Can membrane wetting be reversed in membrane distillation: comparing dryout to backwashing with pressurized air,” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, accepted, July 2017. (doi link)

K.M. Chehayeb, D.M. Farhat, K.G. Nayar, J.H. Lienhard V, “Optimal design and operation of electrodialysis for brackish-water desalination and for high-salinity brine concentration,” Desalination, online 18 July 2017, 420:167-182, 15 Oct. 2017. (doi link) (free download)

O. Labban, T. Chen, A.F. Ghoniem, J.H. Lienhard V, and L.K. Norford, “Next-Generation HVAC: Prospects for and Limitations of Desiccant and Membrane-Based Dehumidification and Cooling,” Applied Energy, online 19 May 2017, 200: 330–346, 15 August 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

K.M. Chehayeb and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation analysis of electrodialysis,” Desalination, online 24 March 2017, 413:184-198, 1 July 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

Q.J. Wei, R.K. McGovern, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Saving energy with an optimized two-stage reverse osmosis system,” Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, online 05 June 2017, 3(4):659-670, July 2017. (doi link) (Inside Front Cover)

J.H. Lienhard V, K.H. Mistry, M.H. Sharqawy, and G.P. Thiel, “Thermodynamics, Exergy,
and Energy Efficiency in Desalination Systems,” in Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach, Chpt. 4, H.A. Arafat, ed. Elsevier Publishing Co., 23 June 2017. (URL) (preprint)

Y. Roy, G.P. Thiel, M.A. Antar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “The Effect of Increased Top Brine Temperature on the Performance and Design of OT-MSF Using a Case Study,” Desalination, online 7 March 2017, 412: 32-38, 15 June 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

K.A. Rambo, D.M. Warsinger, S.J. Shanbhoguea, J.H. Lienhard V, and A.F. Ghoniem, “Water-Energy Nexus in Saudi Arabia,” Energy Procedia,105:3837-3843, 1 June 2017. (doi link)

M. Rezaei, D.M. Warsinger, J.H. Lienhard V, W.M. Samhaber, “Wetting prevention in membrane distillation through superhydrophobicity and recharging an air layer on the membrane surface,” J. Membrane Sci., online 12 Feb. 2017, 530:42-52, 15 May 2017. (doi link)

D.M. Warsinger, E.W. Tow, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Theoretical framework for predicting inorganic fouling in membrane distillation and experimental validation with calcium sulfate,” J. Membrane Sci., online 22 Jan. 2017, 528:381-390, 15 April 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

H.W. Chung, L.D. Banchik, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the present and future economic viability of stand-alone pressure-retarded osmosis,” Desalination, online 21 Jan. 2017, 408:133-144, 15 April 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

H.W. Chung, K.G. Nayar, J. Swaminathan, K.M. Chehayeb, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic analysis of brine management methods: zero-discharge desalination and salinity-gradient power production,” Desalination, online 23 Nov. 2016, 404:291-303, 17 Feb. 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

A. Servi, E. Guillen-Burrieza, D.M. Warsinger, W. Livernois, K. Notarangelo, J. Kharraz, J.H. Lienhard V, H.A. Arafat, and K.K. Gleason, “The effects of iCVD film thickness and conformality on the permeability and wetting of MD membranes,” online 6 Oct. 2016, J. Membrane Sci., 523:470-479, 1 Feb. 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

O. Labban, C. Liu, T.H. Chong, J.H. Lienhard V, “Fundamentals of Low-Pressure Nanofiltration: Membrane Characterization, Modeling, and Understanding the Multi-Ionic Interactions in Water Softening,” J. Membrane Sci., online 31 August 2016, 521:18-32, 1 January 2017. (doi link) (preprint)

2016
J.H. Lienhard V, G.P. Thiel, D.E.M. Warsinger, L.D. Banchik (eds.), “Low Carbon Desalination: Status and Research, Development, and Demonstration Needs, Report of a workshop conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in association with the Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance,” MIT Abdul Latif Jameel World Water and Food Security Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 2016. (pdf)

J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, D.M. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Membrane Distillation Model Based on Heat Exchanger Theory and Configuration Comparison,” online 23 Oct. 2016, Applied Energy, 184:491-505, 15 Dec. 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the asymptotic flux of ultrapermeable seawater
reverse osmosis membranes due to concentration polarisation,” J. Membrane Sci., online 20 August 2016, 520:560-565, 15 December 2016. (doi link) (preprint)
Mass transfer strongly limits flux gains achievable by high permeability membranes.

D.M. Warsinger, E.W. Tow, K.G. Nayar, L.A. Maswadeh, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Efficiency of Batch and Semi-batch (CCRO) Reverse Osmosis Desalination,” Water Research, online 25 Sept. 2016, 106:272-282, 1 Dec. 2016. (doi link) (preprint)
Energy saving reverse osmosis desalination systems invented at MIT.

E.W. Tow, M. Rencken, and J.H. Lienhard V, “In situ visualization of organic fouling and cleaning mechanisms in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis,” Desalination, online 9 Sept. 2016, 399:138-147, 1 Dec. 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel and J.H. Lienhard V, “An effectiveness-NTU relationship for evaporators with non-negligible boiling point elevation increases,” Journal of Heat Transfer, 138(12):12180, December 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

B.A. Qureshi, S.M. Zubair, G.P. Thiel, and J.H. Lienhard V, “The reversed chemical engine cycle,” Desalination, 398:256-264, 15 November 2016. (doi link)

W. Rohlfs, G.P. Thiel, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling reverse osmosis element design using superposition and an analogy to convective heat transfer,” J. Membrane Sci., 512:38-49, 15 August 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

E.W.Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Quantifying osmotic membrane fouling to enable comparisons across diverse processes,” J. Membrane Sci., 511:92-107, 1 Aug. 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

L.D. Banchik, A.M. Weiner, B. Al Anzi, J.H. Lienhard V, “System scale analytical modeling of forward and assisted forward osmosis mass exchangers with a case study on fertigation,” J. Membrane Sci., 510:533-545, 15 July 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

K.G. Nayar, M.H. Sharqawy, L.D. Banchik, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermophysical properties of seawater: A review and new correlations that include pressure dependence,” online 7 April 2016, Desalination, 390:1-24, 15 July 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

M.I. Hassan, A.T. Brimmo, J. Swaminathan, J.H. Lienhard V, H.A. Arafat, “A New Vacuum Membrane Distillation System Using an Aspirator: Concept Modeling and Optimization,” Desalination and Water Treatment, online 18 June 2015, 57:12915–12928, June 2016. (doi link)

W. Rohlfs and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entrance length effects on Graetz number scaling in laminar duct flows with periodic obstructions: Transport number correlations for spacer-filled membrane channel flows,” Intl. J. Heat Mass Transfer, online 12 March 2016, 97:842-852, June 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

D.M. Warsinger, A. Servi, S. Van Belleghem, J. Gonzalez, J. Swaminathan, J. Kharraz, H.W. Chung, H.A. Arafat, K.K. Gleason, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Combining Air Recharging and Membrane Superhydrophobicity for Fouling Prevention in Membrane Distillation,” J. Membrane Sci., online 14 January 2016, 505:241-252, 1 May 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

J. Swaminathan, K.G. Nayar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Mechanical Vapor Compression-Membrane Distillation Hybrids for Reduced Specific Energy Consumption,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(55):26507-26517, online 28 April 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, D.M. Warsinger, J.H. Lienhard V, “Simple Method for Balancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation,” Desalination, online 22 January 2016, 383:53-59, 1 April 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, D.M. Warsinger, F. AlMarzooqi, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Efficiency of Permeate Gap and Novel Conductive Gap Membrane Distillation,” J. Membrane Sci., online 10 December 2015, 502:171–178, 15 March 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

H.W. Chung, J. Swaminathan, D.M. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD) systems at high salinity,” J. Membrane Sci., online 15 Sept. 2015, 497:128–141, 1 Jan. 2016. (doi link) (preprint)

Conference Papers 2016
D.M. Warsinger, E.W. Tow, K. Nayar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Enhancing energy efficiency of reverse osmosis with batch and semi-batch processes,” Proc. IDA international Desalination Workshop (IDW2016), Abu Dhabi, UAE, 13–15 Nov. 2016. Received Best Oral Presentation Award

K.G. Nayar and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermophysical Properties of Seawater: New pressure-dependent correlations,” 11th Asian Thermophysical Properties Conference 2016 (ATPC2016), 2–6 October 2016, Yokohama, Japan.

H.W. Chung, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Membrane Distillation for High Salinity Desalination,” Singapore International Water Week, 10–14 July 2016.

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Comparison of fouling behavior in forward osmosis and reverse osmosis desalination at brackish and seawater salinity,” Singapore International Water Week, 10–14 July 2016. Received Best Poster Award.

Y. Roy, M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, “Insight into the Effect of Temperature on the Mechanism of Nanofiltration,” Singapore International Water Week, 10–14 July 2016.

D.M. Warsinger, E.W. Tow, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Inorganic Fouling Resistance of Membrane Distillation vs. Reverse Osmosis,” Singapore International Water Week, 10–14 July 2016.

Q.J. Wei, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energetic Benefits Of Staged Reverse Osmosis,” 2016 UCOWR/NIWR Conference, 21–23 June 2016, Pensacola, Florida. Received Best Presentation Award.

O. Labban, C. Liu, T.H. Chong, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling Low- Pressure Nanofiltration Membranes for Softening and Pretreatment,” North American Membrane Society 26th Annual Meeting, May 21–25, 2016, Bellevue, WA.

O. Labban, C. Liu, T.H. Chong, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling Nanofiltration: The Fundamentals and Its Application in Softening and Pretreatment,” North American Membrane Society 26th Annual Meeting, May 21– 25, 2016, Bellevue, WA.

J.H. Lienhard V, G.P. Thiel, W. Rohlfs, “Making desalination an energy efficient alternative,” Proc. First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, 13–17 March 2016, Hawaii. (pdf)

W. Rohlfs, G.P. Thiel, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling reverse osmosis element design using superposition and an analogy to convective heat transfer,” Jahrestreffen der Fachgruppen Mechanische Flüssigkeitsabtrennung und Membrantechnik, Kassel, Germany, 2–3 March 2016.

W. Rohlfs and J.H. Lienhard V, “Skalierungsregeln für den Wärme- und Stoffübergang in laminaren Strömungen mit periodischen Strömungskörpern,” Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachausschüsse Fluidverfahrenstechnik, Kassel, Germany, 1–2 March 2016.

D.M. Warsinger, A. Servi, G. Connors, J. Gonzalez, J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, K.K. Gleason, J.H. Lienhard V, “Reversing Wetting in Membrane Distillation: A Comparison of Pressurized Air Backwashing versus Dry-out,” AWWA and AMTA 2016 Membrane Technology Conference and Exposition, San Antonio, TX, 1–5 Feb. 2016.

H.W. Chung, K.G. Nayar, K.H. Chehayeb, B. Al-Anzi, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic Analysis of Seawater Brine Management Processes,” 2nd Intl. Conf. on Desalination and Environment, Doha, Qatar, 23–26 Jan. 2016.

2015
Y. Roy, M.H. Sharqawy, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling of Flat-Sheet and Spiral-Wound Nanofiltration Configurations and Its Application in Seawater Nanofiltration,” J. Membrane Sci., online 24 June 2015, 493:630-642, 1 Nov. 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

A.M. Weiner, R.K. McGovern, and J.H. Lienhard V, “A new reverse electrodialysis design strategy which significantly reduces the levelized cost of electricity,” J. Membrane Sci., online 6 June 2015, 493:605–614, 1 Nov. 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

D.M. Warsinger, K.H. Mistry, K.G. Nayar, H.W. Chung, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat,” Entropy, 17:7530-7566, 30 Oct. 2015. (doi link) (pdf)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, L. Maswadeh, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Superhydrophobic Condenser Surfaces for Air Gap Membrane Distillation,” J. Membrane Sci., online 10 June 2015, 492:578–587, 15 Oct. 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

A.M. Weiner, R.K. McGovern, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Increasing the power density and reducing the levelized cost of electricity of a reverse electrodialysis stack through blending,” J. Membrane Sci., online 16 May 2015, 369:140-148, 3 August 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

K.M. Chehayeb, G.P. Narayan, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic balancing of a fixed-size two-stage humidification dehumidification desalination system,” Desalination, 369:125-139, 3 August 2015; online 16 May 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel, E.W. Tow, L.D. Banchik, H.W. Chung, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy consumption in desalinating produced water from shale oil and gas extraction,” Desalination, 366:94-112, 15 June 2015; online 15 January 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

E.W. Tow, R.K. McGovern, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Raising forward osmosis brine concentration efficiency through flow rate optimization,” Desalination, 366:71-79, 15 June 2015; online 13 November 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Forward for Special Issue: Energy and Desalination,” Desalination, 366:1, 15 June 2015 (doi link)

G.P. Thiel, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “An analysis of likely scalants in the treatment of produced water from Nova Scotia,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 36(7-8):652-662, 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

M. Sievers and J.H. Lienhard V, “Design of Plate-Fin Tube Dehumidifiers for Humidification-Dehumidification Desalination Systems,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 36(3):223-243, 11 February 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, E. Guillen, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Scaling and Fouling In Membrane Distillation for Desalination Applications: A Review,” Desalination, 356:294-313, 15 January 2015. (doi link) (preprint)

Conference Papers 2015
W.Rohlfs and J.H. Lienhard V, “Validity of classical scaling laws in laminar channel flow with periodic spacer-like obstacles,” 68th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, 22–24 Nov. 2015, Boston, MA. (abstract)

J. Swaminathan and J.H. Lienhard V, “MVC MD hybrids for reduced specific energy consumption,” Desaltech 2015 Conference, San Diego, 28–29 August 2015.

K.M. Chehayeb and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of feed salinity on the performance of humidification-dehumidification desalination,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. (pdf)

F. Al Marzooqi, M.R. Bilad, J. Swaminathan, J.H. Lienhard V, H.A. Arafat, “Flux measurements in novel membrane distillation configurations,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015.

R.K. McGovern, D. McConnon, J.H. Lienhard V, “The effect of very high hydraulic pressure on the permeability of reverse osmosis membranes,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. (pdf)

K.G. Nayar, N.C. Wright, A.G. Winter V, and J.H. Lienhard V, “High recovery desalination: energy for electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, closed circuit reverse osmosis and least work,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015.

K.G. Nayar, J. Swaminathan, D. Panchanathan, D.M. Warsinger, G.H. McKinley, J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of scale deposition on surface tension of seawater and membrane distillation,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. (pdf) (preprint)

J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, D.E.M. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Experimental investigation of high efficiency single-stage membrane distillation configurations,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. (pdf) (preprint) Received Best Presentation Award

G.P. Thiel, L.D. Banchik, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Hybridization of humidification-dehumidification and pressure retarded osmosis for brine concentration applications,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015, 0491-000108. (pdf)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, H.W. Chung, S. Jeong, and J.H. Lienhard V, “The effect of filtration and particulate fouling in membrane distillation,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. Received Best Poster Award (preprint)

A.M. Weiner, D. Blum, J.H. Lienhard V, and A.F. Ghoniem, “Design of a hybrid RO-MED solar desalination system for treating agricultural drainage water in California,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, San Diego, Aug. 2015. (pdf)

O. Labban and J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling Nanofiltration for Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules,” 2nd Intl. Conf. on Desalination Using Membrane Technology, Singapore, 26–29 July 2015.

J. Swaminathan, D.M. Warsinger, H.W. Chung, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Zero Liquid Discharge Desalination For Hydraulic Fracturing,” Proc. American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, 7–10 June 2015. Received First Place Best Poster Award.

D.M. Warsinger, S.M. Van Belleghem, J.V. Gonzalez, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “The effect of air layers and membrane superhydrophobicity on fouling in membrane distillation,” Proc. American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, USA, 7–10 June 2015. Received Second Place Best Poster Award

O. Labban, Y. Roy, J.H. Lienhard V, “Modeling Nanofiltration for large scale applications,” AEESP Research and Education Conference, Yale, June 2015.

K.G. Nayar, J. Swaminathan, D.E.M. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Alternative Technologies for Low Temperature Thermal Desalination,” Proc. 2015 Indian Water Week, New Delhi, India, 13–17 January 2015.

2014
E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Heat transfer to a horizontal cylinder in a shallow bubble column,” Intl. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 79:353-361, Dec. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, A.M. Weiner, L. Sun, C.G. Chambers, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the cost of electrodialysis for the desalination of high salinity feeds,” Applied Energy, 136:649-661, Dec. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

K.G. Nayar, D. Panchanathan, G.H. McKinley, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Surface tension of seawater,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 43(4):43103, Nov. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard, “The benefits of hybridizing electrodialysis with reverse osmosis,” J. Membrane Sci., 469:326-335, 1 November 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern and J.H. Lienhard V, “On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination,” J. Membrane Sci., 469:245-250, Nov. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

L.D. Banchik, M.H. Sharqawy, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Limits of Power Production Due to Finite Membrane Area in Pressure Retarded Osmosis,” J. Membrane Sci., 468:81-89, 15 October 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard, “The cost effectiveness of electrodialysis for diverse salinity applications,” Desalination, 348:57-65, Sept. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Measurements of heat transfer coefficients to cylinders in shallow bubble columns,” Proc. 15th Intl. Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC-15, IHTC-15, Paper No. IHTC15-8857, 10-15 August 2014, Kyoto, Japan. (pdf)

K.M. Chehayeb, F.K. Cheaib, and J.H. Lienhard V, “A numerical algorithm for heat and mass transfer model of a desalination systems based on packed-bed humidification and bubble column dehumidification,” Proc. 15th Intl. Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC-15, Paper No. IHTC15-8995, 10-15 August 2014, Kyoto, Japan. (pdf)

D.E.M. Warsinger, J. Swaminathan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of module angle on air-gap membrane distillation,” Proc. 15th Intl. Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC-15, Paper No. IHTC15-9351, 10-15 August 2014, Kyoto, Japan. (pdf)

L.D. Banchik, M.H. Sharqawy, and J.H. Lienhard V, “A Design and Rating Method for Osmotic Mass Exchangers,” Singapore International Water Week, June 2014. Received Best Poster Award

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Experiments and Modeling of Bubble Column Dehumidifier Performance,” Intl. J. Thermal Sciences, 80:65-75, June 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel and J.H. Lienhard V, “Treating produced water from hydraulic fracturing: composition effects on scale formation and desalination system selection,” Desalination, 346:54-69, May 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

L.D. Banchik, M.H. Sharqawy, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effectiveness-Mass Transfer Units (ε–MTU) Model of a Reverse Osmosis Membrane Mass Exchanger,” J. Membrane Science, 458:189-198, 15 May 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, J. Mizerak, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Three dimensionless parameters influencing the optimal membrane orientation for forward osmosis,” J. Membrane Science, 458:104-110, 15 May 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

J. Swaminathan, David E.M. Warsinger, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Concentration and temperature polarization in membrane distillation: experimental and numerical study,” 11th IWA Leading Edge Technologies Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies, Abu Dhabi, 26-30 May 2014.

G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic equipartition for increased second law efficiency,” Applied Energy, 118C:292-299, April 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard, “Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for the treatment of highly saline brines,” IDA Journal, 6(1):16-23, April 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

D. Cohen-Tanugi, R.K. McGovern, S. Dave, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.C. Grossman, “Quantifying the Potential of Ultra-permeable Desalination Membranes,” Energy Environ. Sci., 7(3):1134-1141, Feb. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Narayan and J.H. Lienhard V, “Humidification-dehumidification desalination,” in Desalination: Water from Water. Salem, MA: Wiley-Scrivener, 2014. (pdf)

K.M. Chehayeb, G.P. Narayan, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Use of multiple extractions and injections to thermodynamically balance the humidification dehumidification desalination system,” Intl. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 68:422–434, Jan. 2014. (doi link) (preprint)

2013
E.K. Summers and J.H. Lienhard V,  “Experimental Study of Thermal Performance in Air Gap Membrane Distillation Systems including Direct Solar Heating of Membranes,” Desalination, 330:100-111, December 2013. (doi link)

J. Swaminathan and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy efficiency of sweeping gas membrane distillation cycles,” 11th ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conf., Kharagpur, India, 28-31 Dec. 2013. (pdf)

M.H. Sharqawy, L.D. Banchik, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effectiveness-Mass Transfer Units (ε-MTU) Model of an Ideal Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membrane Mass Exchanger,” Journal of Membrane Science, 445:211-219, 15 October 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

E.K. Summers and J.H. Lienhard V, “Cycle performance of multi-stage vacuum membrane distillation (MS-VMD) systems,” IDA World Congress on Desalination, Tianjin, China, October 2013. (pdf)

R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines,” IDA World Congress on Desalination, Tianjin, China, October 2013. (pdf) (preprint) Received Best Presentation Award

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Heat flux and effectiveness in bubble column dehumidifiers for HDH desalination,” IDA World Congress on Desalination, Tianjin, China, October 2013. (pdf)

W. Akram, M.H. Sharqawy, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy utilization of brine from an MSF desalination plant by pressure retarded osmosis,” IDA World Congress on Desalination, Tianjin, China, October 2013. (pdf)

D. Cohen-Tanugi, S. Dave, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, J. Grossman, “Novel nanomaterials for water desalination technology,” Proceedings of the 2013 1st IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech), Portland, OR, 1-2 Aug. 2013. (pdf)

K. Mistry and J.H. Lienhard V, “An economics-based second law efficiency,” Entropy, 15(7):2736-2765, 12 July 2013. (pdf) (doi link)

E.W. Tow and J.H. Lienhard V, “Analytical Modeling of a Bubble Column Dehumidifier,” Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference, HT2013-17763, Minneapolis MN, July 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

K. Mistry, H.A. Hunter, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of composition and nonideal solution behavior on desalination calculations for mixed electrolyte solutions with comparison to seawater,” Desalination, 318:34-47, June 2013. (doi link)

K.H. Mistry and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of Nonideal Solution Behavior on Desalination of a Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Solution and Comparison to Seawater,” J. Energy Res. Tech., 135(4):042003, Dec. 2013. (doi link)

G.P. Thiel, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “An analysis of likely scalants in the treatment of produced water from Nova Scotia,” Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning X – 2013, Budapest, Hungary, 9-14 June 2013. (pdf)

M.A. Gondal, S.G. Rashid, M.A. Dastageer, S.M. Zubair, M.A. Ali, J.H. Lienhard V, G.H. McKinley and K.K. Varanasi, “Sol-gel Synthesis of Nanostructured Au/Cu-TiO2 Composites and their Morphological and Optical Properties,” IEEE Photonics Journal, 5(3):2201908, June 2013. (doi link)

K. Mistry and J.H. Lienhard V, “Generalized least energy of separation for desalination and other chemical separation processes,” Entropy, 15(6):2046-2080, May 2013. (pdf) (doi link)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, S. Lam, S.K. Das, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Bubble Columns for Condensation at High Concentrations of Non-condensable Gas: Heat Transfer Model and Experiments,” AIChE Journal, 59(5):1780–1790, May 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Thiel, J.A. Miller, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of mass extractions and injections on the performance of a fixed-size humidification-dehumidification desalination system,” Desalination, 314:50-58, April 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

J.A. Miller and J.H. Lienhard V, “Impact of Extraction on a Humidification-Dehumidification Desalination System,” Desalination, 313:87-96, March 2013. (doi link)

F. Al-Sulaiman, G.P. Narayan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Exergy Analysis of a High-Temperature-Steam-Driven, Varied-pressure, Humidification-Dehumidification System Coupled with Reverse Osmosis,” Applied Energy, 103:552-561, March 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

G.P. Narayan, M.S. St. John, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermal design of the humidification dehumidification desalination system: an experimental investigation,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 58:740-748, March 2013. (doi link)

G.P. Narayan, K.M. Chehayeb, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic balancing of the humidification dehumidification desalination system by mass extraction and injection,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 57(2):756-770, Feb. 2013 (doi link) (preprint)

R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, G.P. Narayan, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Performance Limits of Single and Dual Stage Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Systems,” Applied Energy, 102:1081-1090, Feb. 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

E.K. Summers and J.H. Lienhard V,  “A Novel Solar Air-Gap Membrane Distillation System,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 51:1344–1351, Feb. 2013. (doi link)

M. Sievers and J.H. Lienhard V, “Design of flat-plate dehumidifiers for humidification dehumidification desalination systems,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 34(7):543-561, Jan. 2013 (doi link) (preprint)

K. Mistry, M.A. Antar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “An Improved Model for Multiple Effect Distillation,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 51:807–821, Jan. 2013. (doi link) (preprint)

A.K. Plappally and J.H. Lienhard V, “Cost of Water Treatment, Distribution, End Use, and Reclamation,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 51:200–232, Jan. 2013. (doi link)

2012
E.K. Summers, M.A. Antar, and J.H. Lienhard V,  “Design and optimization of an air heating solar collector with integrated phase change material energy storage for use in humidification-dehumidification desalination,” Solar Energy, 86(11):3417-3429, Nov. 2012. (doi link)

M. Ali, E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard V, “Effects of Membrane Properties on Water Production Cost in Small Scale Membrane Distillation Systems,” Desalination, 306:60–71, Nov. 2012. (doi link)

G.P. Narayan and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermal Design of Humidification Dehumidification Systems for Affordable Small-scale Desalination,” IDA Journal, 4(3):24-34, Sept. 2012. (pdf)

A.K. Plappally and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Requirements for Water Production, Treatment, End Use, Reclamation, and Discharge,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7):4818-4848, Sept. 2012. (doi link)

G.P. Thiel and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation in condensation in the presence of high concentrations of noncondensable gases,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55:5133–5147, Sept. 2012. (doi link) (preprint)

R. Saffarini, E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard V, “Economic evaluation of stand-alone solar-powered membrane distillation systems,” Desalination, 299:55-62, August 2012. (doi link)

J.H. Lienhard V, A. Bilton, M.A. Antar, G. Zaragoza, and J. Blanco, “Solar Desalination,” in Annual Review of Heat Transfer, Vol. 15. New York: Begell House, Inc., 2012. (pdf)

R.K. McGovern, G.P. Narayan, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Analysis of Reversible Ejectors and Definition of Ejector Efficiency,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 54(4):153–166, April 2012. (doi link) (preprint)

E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy efficiency comparison of single stage membrane distillation (MD) desalination cycles in different configurations,” Desalination, 290:54-66, Feb. 2012. (doi link)

R. Saffarini, E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard V, “Technical evaluation of stand-alone solar-powered membrane distillation systems,” Desalination, 286:332–341, Jan. 2012. (doi link)

G.P. Narayan, R.K. McGovern, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “High-temperature-steam-driven, varied-pressure, humidification-dehumidification system coupled with reverse osmosis for energy-efficient seawater desalination,” Energy, 37(1):482-493, Jan. 2012. (doi link)

M.A. Gondal, S.G.Rashid, M.A. Dastageer, A.Khalil, S.M. Zubair, M.A.Ali, J.H. Lienhard V, G.H. McKinley, K.K. Varanasi, “A study of morphology and Optical properties of nano engineered (Au/Cu/TiO2) composites,” Proc. 9th International Conference on High Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling Technologies (HONET), Istanbul, 157-161, 12-14 Dec. 2012. (doi link)

K.H. Mistry and J.H. Lienhard V, “Effect of Nonideal Solution Behavior on Desalination of a Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Solution and Comparison to Seawater,” Proc. ASME 2012 Intl. Mech. Engr. Cong. & Exp., IMECE2012-88261, Houston, November 2012. (pdf)

L. Banchik and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermodynamic Analysis of a Reverse Osmosis Desalination System Using Forward Osmosis for Energy Recovery,” Proc. ASME 2012 Intl. Mech. Engr. Cong. & Exp., IMECE2012-86987, Houston, November 2012. (pdf) (preprint)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, S.K. Das, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Advances in humidification dehumidification desalination,” Singapore International Water Week, July 2012.

B.Y. Yu, T. Honda, G. Zak, A. Mitsos, S.M. Zubair, M.H. Sharqawy, M.A. Antar, J.H. Lienhard V, K.H. Mistry, and M.C. Yang, “Prognosis of component degradation under uncertainty: A method for early stage design of a complex engineering system,” ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, Nantes, France, 2-4 July 2012. (pdf)

R.K. McGovern, K.V. Bulusu, M.A. Antar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “One-dimensional Model of an Optimal Ejector and Parametric Study of Ejector Efficiency,” 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation (ECOS) and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Perugia, Italy, June 2012. (pdf)

2011
G.P. Narayan, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, J.A. Miller, M.H. Sharqawy, S.M. Zubair, M.A. Antar, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Status of humidification-dehumidification desalination,” IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, Perth, Australia, 5-9 Sept. 2011. Received Best Paper Award (pdf) (presentation)

K.H. Mistry, G.P. Narayan, A.H. Mitsos, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Optimization of multi-pressure humidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and energy recovery,” ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conf., Chennai, India, Dec. 2011. (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Helium as a Carrier Gas in Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Systems,” Proc. ASME 2011 Intl. Mech. Engr. Cong. & Exp., Denver, Nov. 2011. (pdf) (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, I.S. Husain, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermal Performance Evaluation of Seawater Cooling Towers,”Proc. ASME 2011 Intl. Mech. Engr. Cong. & Exp., Denver, Nov. 2011. (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Second Law Analysis of Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants: An Alternative Design Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis,” Energy, 36(11):6617-6626, Nov. 2011 (doi link)

R. Saffarini, E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard V, “Performance review of stand-alone membrane distillation systems,” 1st Intl. Conf. on Desalination and the Environment: Recent developments in non-reverse osmosis desalination and related technologies – ICODE-2011, Abu Dhabi, 29 October 2011.

R. Saffarini, E.K. Summers, H.A. Arafat, J.H. Lienhard V, “Assessment of solar-powered membrane distillation systems,” International Workshop on Membrane Distillation and Related Technologies, Ravello, Italy, 9-12 October 2011

K.H. Mistry, R.K. McGovern, G.P. Thiel, E.K. Summers, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Entropy generation analysis of desalination technologies,” Entropy, 13(10):1829-1864, Sept. 2011 (pdf). Received Best Paper Award

M.H. Sharqawy, M.A. Antar, S.M. Zubair, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Mobile Solar Desalination System for Water Production in Arid and Off-grid Areas,” IDA Conference, May 2011, Portofino, Italy.

K.H. Mistry, A.H. Mitsos, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Optimal operating conditions and configurations for humidification–dehumidification desalination cycles,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50(5):779-789, May 2011. (doi link) (pdf)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 133(4):043001, April 2011. (doi link) (PDF)

G.P. Narayan, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Variable pressure humidification dehumidification desalination systems,” Proc. 8th ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, March 2011, Honolulu. (pdf)

E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Air-heating solar collectors for humidification-dehumidification desalination systems,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 113(1):011016, 14 Feb. 2011. (doi link) (PDF)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “On Exergy Calculations for Seawater with Application to Desalination Systems,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50(2):187-196, Feb. 2011. (doi link) (preprint)

2010
G.P. Narayan, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Entropy Generation Minimization of Combined Heat and Mass Transfer Devices,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49(10):2057-2066, Oct. 2010. (doi link) (preprint)

K.H. Mistry, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Effect of Entropy Generation on the Performance of Humidification-Dehumidification Desalination Cycles,” International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49(9):1837-1847, Sept. 2010. (doi link) (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, K.H. Mistry, M.H. Sharqawy, S.M. Zubair, J.H. Lienhard V, “Energy Effectiveness of Simultaneous Heat and Mass Exchange Devices,” Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, 1(2):1-13, Aug. 2010. (doi link) (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Thermodynamic analysis of humidification-dehumidification desalination cycles,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:339-353, April 2010. (pdf)

G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, “The potential of solar-driven humidification-dehumidification desalination for small-scale decentralized water production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(4):1187-1201, May 2010. (doi link) (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “The thermophysical properties of seawater: A review of existing correlations and data,” Desalination and Water Treatment, 16:354-380, April 2010. (pdf)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Formulation of Seawater Exergy Using Accurate Thermodynamic Data,” Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition, Vancouver BC, November 2010. (preprint)

M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers,” Proceedings of the 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, Washington DC, August 2010.

E.K. Summers, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, “Air-heating solar collectors for humidification-dehumidification desalination systems,” Proceedings of the 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, Washington DC, August 2010.

Selected Earlier Publications

C.C. Ritcher and J.H. Lienhard V, “Active Thermal Control of Distributed Parameter Systems Excited at Multiple Frequencies,” J. Heat Transfer, 128:93-99, 2006. (PDF file)

A.E. Bergles, J.H. Lienhard V, G.E. Kendall, and P. Griffith, “Boiling and Evaporation in Small Diameter Channels,” Heat Transfer Engineering, 24(1):18-40, 2003. (PDF file)

M. Sweetland and J.H. Lienhard V, “Evaporative Cooling of Continuously Drawn Fibers by Water Sprays,” Intl. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43:777-790, 2000. (PDF file)

A.C. Pfahnl, J.H. Lienhard V, and D.J. Watson, “Method and Apparatus for Temperature Control of Semiconductor Electrical-Test Contactor Assembly,” U.S. Patent #6091062, 18 July 2000; Intl. Patents #WO99/382090A2, 29 July 1999, #WO99/382090A3, 23 Sept. 1999.

C.H. Oh, J.H. Lienhard V, H.F. Younis, R.S. Dahbura, and D. Michels, “Liquid Jet-Array Cooling Modules for High Heat Fluxes,” AIChE Journal, 44(4):769-779, 1998. (PDF file)

D. Michels, J. Hadeler, and J.H. Lienhard V, “High Heat Flux Resistance Heaters from VPS and HVOF Thermal Spraying,” Exptl. Heat Transfer, 11:341-359, 1998. (PDF file)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Liquid Jet Impingement,” Annual Review of Heat Transfer, C.L.Tien, ed., Vol.6, Chpt.4. New York: Begell House, 1995, pp.199-270. (pdf)

S.K. Bhunia and J.H. Lienhard V, “Splattering during Turbulent Liquid Jet Impingement on Solid Targets,” J. Fluids Engineering, 116(2):338-344, 1994. (PDF)

L.A. Gabour and J.H. Lienhard V, “Wall Roughness Effects on Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer Beneath an Impinging Liquid Jet,” J. Heat Transfer, 116(1):81-87, 1994. (PDF file)

X. Liu and J.H. Lienhard V, “The Hydraulic Jump in Circular Liquid Jet Impingement and in Other Thin Films,” Expts. Fluids, 15:108-116, 1993. (PDF file)

X. Liu, L.A. Gabour, and J.H. Lienhard V, “Stagnation Point Heat Transfer During Liquid Jet Impingement: Analysis with Surface Tension,” J. Heat Transfer, 115(1):99-105, 1993. (PDF file)

X. Liu, J.H. Lienhard V, and J.S. Lombara, “Convective Heat Transfer by Impingement of Circular Liquid Jets,” J. Heat Transfer, 113(3):571-582, 1991. (PDF file)

J.H. Lienhard V and C.W. Van Atta, “The decay of turbulence in thermally stratified flow,” J. Fluid Mechanics, 210:57-112, Jan. 1990. (PDF file)

J.H. Lienhard V, “An improved approach to conductive boundary conditions for the Rayleigh-Benard instability,” J. Heat Transfer, 109(2):378-387, 1987. (PDF file)

I. Catton and J.H. Lienhard V, “Thermal stability of two fluid layers separated by a solid interlayer of finite thickness and thermal conductivity,” Journal of Heat Transfer, 106(1):13-17, 1984.

Books

L.R. Glicksman and J.H. Lienhard V. Modeling and Approximation in Heat Transfer. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2016. URL

J.H. Lienhard IV and J.H. Lienhard V, A Heat Transfer Textbook, 4th ed. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2011. (download)

T.G. Beckwith, R.D. Marangoni, and J.H. Lienhard V, Mechanical Measurements, 6th edition. Pearson: 2007. URL

Book Chapters

J.H. Lienhard V, K.H. Mistry, M.H. Sharqawy, and G.P. Thiel, “Thermodynamics, Exergy,
and Energy Efficiency in Desalination Systems,” in Desalination Sustainability: A Technical, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Approach, Chpt. 5, H.A. Arafat, ed. Elsevier Publishing Co., 1 June 2017. (URL) (preprint)

G.P. Narayan and J.H. Lienhard V, “Humidification-dehumidification desalination,” in Desalination: Water from Water, Chpt.9. Salem, MA: Wiley-Scrivener, 2014. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V, A. Bilton, M.A. Antar, G. Zaragoza, and J. Blanco, “Solar Desalination,” in Annual Review of Heat Transfer, Vol. 15, Chpt.9. New York: Begell House, Inc., 2012. (pdf)

J.H. Lienhard V, “Liquid Jet Impingement,” in Annual Review of Heat Transfer, C.L.Tien, ed., Vol.6, Chpt.4. New York: Begell House, 1995, pp.199-270. (pdf)

Recently Issued US Patents

Multistage membrane distillation processes, E.K. Summersand J.H. Lienhard V, US Patent #9718709, 1 August 2017.

Ion Caging for Scale Prevention in High-Recovery Desalination, G.P. Narayan, S. Lam, J.H. Lienhard V, M. Mirhi, M. St. John, W. Sung, and A. Bajpayee, US Patent #9617179, 11 April 2017.

Wastewater Filtration System and Method, M.A. Gondal, X. Chang, M.A. Ali, M.A. Dastageer, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, US Patent #9505635, 29 November 2016.

Thermodynamic balancing of combined heat and mass exchange devices, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, S.K. Das, K. Chehayeb, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, US Patent #9416800, 16 August 2016.

Multistage Bubble-Column Vapor Mixture Condenser, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and M.H. Sharqawy, US Patent #9403104, 2 August 2016.

Humidification-Dehumidification System with a Bubble-Column Vapor Mixture Condenser and Intermediate Gas Extraction, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and M.H. Sharqawy, US Patent #9320984, 26 April 2016.

Multistage bubble column humidifier, G.P. Narayan, M.H. Sharqawy, S. Lam, J.H. Lienhard V, and M. St. John, US Patent #9120033, 1 September 2015

Bubble Column Vapor Mixture Condenser, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and M.H. Sharqawy, US Patent #9072984, 7 July 2015.

Humidification-Dehumidification System Including Bubble Column Vapor Mixture Condenser, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and M.H. Sharqawy, US Patent #8778065, 15 July 2014.

High-Efficiency Thermal-Energy-Driven Water Purification System, G.P. Narayan, K.H. Mistry, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, US Patent #8647477, 11 February 2014.

Multi-Stage Bubble Column Dehumidifier, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, and M.H. Sharqawy, US Patent #8525447, 3 September 2013.

Water Desalination Using Directional Solvent Extraction, A. Bajpayee, D. Kraemer, A. Muto, G. Chen, J.H. Lienhard V, and B.B. Mikic, US Patent #8501007, 6 August 2013.

Thermodynamic balancing of heat and mass exchange devices, G.P. Narayan, G.P. Thiel, R.K. McGovern, J.H. Lienhard V, S.K. Das, K. Chehayeb, S.M. Zubair, and M.A. Antar, US Patent #8496234, 30 July 2013.

Separation of a Vaporizable Component Under Reduced Pressure, M.H. Sharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, S.M. Zubair, and G.P. Narayan, US Patent #8465006, 18 June 2013.

Water Separation Under Reduced Pressure, M.H. Sharqawy, G.P. Narayan, J.H. Lienhard, and S.M. Zubair, US Patent #8292272, 23 October 2012.

Water Separation Under Varied Pressure,  P. Narayan Govindan, M.H. ElSharqawy, J.H. Lienhard V, and S.M. Zubair, US Patent #8252092, 28 August 2012.

Water Desalination Using Directional Solvent Extraction, A. Bajpayee, D. Kraemer, A.J. Muto, G. Chen, J.H. Lienhard, and B.B. Mikic, US Patent #8119007, 21 Feb. 2012.